This month, for the third edition of “Famous Names in Public Health!” I will focus on the medical side of healthcare by recognizing a figure who contributed significantly to the fields of neurosurgery and epidemiology, Dr.Harvey Cushing.
Dr. Cushing graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1895 and he continued his medical training in surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. During the time of his training, neuroscience was a rapidly growing field of medicine making numerous advances and discoveries. Neurosurgery claimed Dr. Cushing’s professional interest as he drifted from general surgery into peripheral-nerve surgery. After this, he became more and more focused on the brain, ultimately making neurosurgery his focus for his career. In 1913, Dr. Cushing accepted a position as the surgeon in chief at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital that was associated with Harvard. He continued to practice neurosurgery even in this position. According to the article “Harvey Cushing: A Life in Surgery,” Dr. Cushing’s major interest was cerebral tumors, leading him to study and treat more than 2,000 verified tumors. These studies are documented within 5 books published between 1912 and 1938.
Throughout his years of practice, he developed the Cushing Brain Tumor registry in 1902. It is an archive “of over 2,200 case studies which includes human whole brain specimens, tumor specimens, microscopic slides, notes, journal excerpts and over 15,000 photographic negatives dating from the late 1800’s to 1936. ” What makes this collection even more unique is that Cushing was an avid bibliophile, so he meticulously recorded and documented each patient story, including the stories of the patients of the collected specimens. Today, this provides a unique history of neurosurgery’s progression throughout his career.
Most notably, Dr. Cushing made numerous contributions to science and medicine, including the control of bleeding with silver clips, the development of electro-surgery, the development of technical methods for performing surgical operations, an increased understanding of intracranial pressure, the development of the pathological classification of glioma, and the description of pituitary basophilia (also known as Cushing Syndrome). Through this work on the pituitary gland, Cushing is also considered to be one of the founders of endocrinology. Even more of his pioneering research and medical practice can be found here.